What Is Industrial Relations and Labour Laws

Intellectual property is the company`s most important asset[7], employees create value for the company[8] by creating intellectual property. According to the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS), intellectual property is personal property. [9] Intellectual property is used by large companies as a competitive advantage[10] to protect themselves from rivalry. Under the given conditions[11], if the worker is in the agent-principal relationship, he is the employee of the company, and if the employee`s invention is in the context of employment, that is, if the employee creates a new product or process to increase productivity and create the prosperity of organizations through the use of company resources, then the intellectual property belongs exclusively to the company. New products or commercial processes are protected by patents. [12] However, there are many typical opinions about acceptable inventions, one such argument being software inventions. However, there are many arguments and opinions on the patenting of software inventions: in Diamond v. Diehr, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Diehr is patentable because it improved the existing technological process, not because it was implemented on a computer.

The new name “industrial relations” is increasingly taking precedence, as “industrial relations” are often relatively close. [2] Nevertheless, labour relations often dealt with labour relations in the broadest sense, including “non-industrial” labour relations. This is sometimes seen as a parallel to a trend in the distinct but related discipline of human resource management. [3] The labour movement has long feared that economic globalization could weaken workers` bargaining power, as their employers could hire workers abroad to circumvent domestic labour standards. Karl Marx said: Before the Industrial Revolution, the working day varied between 11 and 14 hours. With the growth of industrialism and the introduction of machines, longer working hours became much more common, reaching up to 16 hours a day. In the early stages of development, the scope of labour law is often limited to the most developed and important sectors, enterprises of a certain size and employees; As a general rule, these restrictions are gradually being abolished and the scope of the law is extended to handicrafts, rural industry and agriculture, small enterprises, office workers and, in some countries, civil servants. Thus, a set of laws originally aimed at protecting workers in industrial enterprises is gradually transformed into a broader set of legal principles and norms that have essentially two functions: the protection of the worker as a weaker party in the employment relationship and the regulation of relations between organized interest groups (industrial relations). Proponents have called for a “social clause” to be included in GATT agreements, for example by amending Article XX, which provides an exception to impose sanctions for human rights violations. An explicit reference to core labour standards could allow for comparable measures when a WTO member State violates ILO standards. Opponents argue that such an approach could undermine workers` rights, as it could harm the industry, and thus workers, with no guarantee of reform. In addition, the 1996 Singapore Ministerial Declaration of 1996 stressed that “the comparative advantage of countries, especially low-age developing countries, should in no way be called into question”.

[30] Some countries want to use low wages and fewer rules as a comparative advantage to boost their economies. Another controversial point is whether the economy is shifting output from high-wage to low-wage countries, given the potential differences in labor productivity. [31] Since gatt, most trade agreements have been bilateral. Some of them protect core labour standards. [Citation needed] [e] In addition, some countries prefer countries that respect the fundamental rights of workers in their national customs regime, for example under Articles 7 and 8 of the EC Regulation on preferential tariffs. [32] Departments or ministries of labour responsible for the effective management of labour law and the promotion of its future development were established in Canada in 1900, France in 1906, the United States in 1913, the United Kingdom in 1916, and Germany in 1918. They became common in Europe and were established in India and Japan in the following years and became common in Latin America in the 1930s. An employment office was established in Egypt in 1930, but it wasn`t until the 1940s and 50s that similar agreements began to take root elsewhere in Asia and Africa. In different political circumstances, of course, there are still great differences in the authority and effectiveness of such an administrative apparatus. Although some researchers consider or treat industrial/employment relations as synonymous with labour relations and labour relations, this is controversial because the focus on employee-work relations, i.e. employees or work, is narrower from the point of view of employers, managers and/or public servants.